France-JGOFS   /   PROOF

                    PROOF Program

Rationale of PROOF


The French program PROOF (acronym for Biogeochemical processes in the Ocean and Fluxes), which was lead by Lilianne Merlivat during the last 5 years, has been renewed during the last term of 2001. A new scientific committee has been assigned (see the composition below) and new scientific orientations have been defined. As before, PROOF aims at stimulating research in marine biogeochemistry in continuation with the general guidelines of JGOFS. Nevertheless, from now, research undertaken under the umbrella of PROOF will be conducted more explicitly in the general context of climate change and of its effects on the natural environment.

Five physical or chemical constraints resulting from climate change and anthropogenic perturbations have been identified :


·        Temperature increase

·        Changes in oceanic circulation

·        Increase in the release of anthropogenic material

·        Changes in desert dust deposition

·        Increase in UV radiations at the ocean surface


PROOF stimulates the projects aiming at, on one hand, studying, quantifying and eventually predicting the influence of this chemical and physical forcing on the biological and biogeochemical response of the ocean and on the other hand identifying, quantifying and eventually predicting the feedback mechanisms of the oceanic system on the climate.


Following these general principles, the PROOF program is now structured according to three main themes in accordance with the scientific orientations of emerging programs at an international level, like SOLAS and OCEANS.


·        Theme 1 deals with " The interaction between climatic changes and biogeochemical cycles through the ocean/atmosphere interface". Four main research lines have been identified for this theme.


Ř      CO2 fluxes at the air-sea interface

Ř      Effect of desert dust on the superficial ocean

Ř      Gas cycles which have a climatic impact

Ř      The impact of UV radiation on the superficial ocean


·        Theme 2 deals with " The respective effects of climate change and natural variability on the functional structure of marine ecosystems and on biogeochemical cycles" and is also structured according to four main research lines.


Ř      Biodiversity

Ř      Control factors of oceanic fertility

Ř      Non-living matter

Ř      Trophic interactions


·        Theme 3 deals with " The calibration of paleo proxies in the present ocean". The proxies under consideration are those allowing to reconstruct paleo-productvities







Email adress

French members


1.     BIANCHI Micheline

LMM, Marseille

2.     CLAUSTRE Hervé1

LOV, Villefranche

3.     DANDONNEAU Yves

LODYC, Paris

4.     GREMARE Antoine

LOB, Banyuls-sur-mer

5.     GOYET Catherine

CEFREM, Université de Perpignan

6.     JACQUES Guy

CEFREM, Université de Perpignan

7.     KLEIN Patrice

LPO, Brest

8     LOSNO Rémi

LISA, Creteil

9.    MEMERY Laurent

LODYC, Paris

10    MOULIN Cyril

LSCE, Gif-sur-Yvette

11 SCIARE Jean

LSCE, Gif-sur-Yvette

1  SICRE Marie-Alexandrine2

LSCE, Gif-sur-Yvette


IUEM, Brest


LOV, Villefranche

Foreigner  members



ANCH, VUB, Bruxelles

15.  LE QUERE Corinne

Max Plank Institute, Jena, Germany

16.  LEWIS Marlon

Dalhousie, Halifax, Canada

17.  MANTOURA, Fauzi

IAEA, Monaco

18.  REPETA Dan

WHOI, Woods Hole, USA


1 Committee Chairman

2 Committee executive secretary