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What people do with BOUSSOLE data?

Users tell us:

Each paragraph below is a short statement by a user of the BOUSSOLE data base, who is speaking here because either:

  • He received data from the BOUSSOLE proect or
  • He downloaded data from the BOUSSOLE data base (from the website) or
  • He benefited from the logistical support of the BOUSSOLE cruises for his own research project (or he intends to do so in a near future) or
  • He manages a high-level data base within which BOUSSOLE data have been incorporated.

Chris Proctor, NASA GSFC, USA, administrator of the SeaBASS database

The NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group uses BOUSSOLE data for validation activities involving ocean color sensors such as SeaWiFS, MODIS and MERIS. The high quality, sampling frequency, and length of this time series make it a valuable source of data for validation analyses. Results are publicly available through the data search on the SeaWiFS Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS) at BOUSSOLE data that have been shared with SeaBASS are also available through

Shubba Sathyendranath, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK and Andr Valente, Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Portugal

Ocean Colour - Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI) uses the BOUSSOLE data in the project for: 1) algorithm selection, 2) product validation, 3) uncertainty characterization of products. We are also proposing to include BOUSSOLE data in a consolidated publication of in situ data used in the project.

Jacqueline Boutin, LOCEAN, France

Thanks to the BOUSSOLE mooring and campaigns, we tested a miniaturized CO2 partial pressure sensor based on CARIOCA technology (french funding: ANR BIOCAREX). Two such CARIOCA sensors are installed on the Boussole mooring and about 2 years of measurements have been acquirred. They are under study, in particular in order to better constrain the links between bio-optics and biogeochemistry, to better document the diurnal variability and the signatures of the biological net community production on optical measurements. This project greatly benefited from the very good infrastructure of LOV around Boussole. .

Stanford B Hooker, NASA cal/val Office

The NASA Calibration and Validation Office (CVO) has supported the BOUSSOLE activity with direct funding for many years, because the CVO has a first-order priority to support and establish commercial sources for calibration and validation equipment. BOUSSOLE is based on commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) sensors, and has been an important resource to the CVO for radiometric intercomparisons of new COTS radiometers the CVO has been developing as part of a joint enterprise with Biospherical Instruments, Inc. (San Diego, California). This development activity has been very successful, and a significant reason for the success, has been the ability to evaluate the new technology with respect to measurements made at the BOUSSOLE site, which have a well-established uncertainty budget. The significance of what has been achieved is well summarized by the fact that the BOUSSOLE activity will be adopting this new technology for their routine measurement suite in support of the buoy observations.

Jeremy Werdell, NASA GSFC, USA

Radiometry from BOUSSOLE and supporting pigment data are publicly available via the NASA SeaWiFS Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS).  The radiometry spans Sep 2003 through Dec 2007.  The pigments span Jul 2001 through Dec 2006. These data have been used by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group for their ocean colour satellite data product validation activities.  The radiometry was also used in a vicarious calibration exercise, the results of which are featured in the following publication:
S.W. Bailey, S.B. Hooker, D. Antoine, B.A. Franz, and P.J. Werdell, "Sources and assumptions for the vicarious calibration of ocean color satellite observations," Applied Optics 47, 2035-2045 (2008)

Constant Mazeran, ACRI-st, and Kathryn Barker, Argans Ltd, Plymouth, UK

Thanks to its long-term availability, BOUSSOLE is a major constituent of MERMAID, the MERIS Matchup In-Situ Database. This ESA-funded project aims at making available an easy-to-use centralised database of merged in-situ optical measurements with concurrent MERIS acquisitions to Ocean Colour researchers involved in the MERIS mission. Access is open to the MERIS Validation Team, the MERIS Quality Working Group, and to any independent collaborating Principal Investigator (PI). Because of their involvement in deployment, maintenance and data collection, the PI has priority use of the data collected at the site, and for this reason any use of these data in public papers requires an offer of co-authorship.
The long-term objectives of this database are to:
* Enable the assessment of the MERIS marine Level 2 products delivered by the ENVISAT ground segment.
* Support the monitoring of these MERIS products over the lifetime of the mission by providing a complete temporal coverage of the mission.
* Provide support to atmospheric correction research.
* Support vicarious adjustment of the instrument.
BOUSSOLE marine reflectances are one of the biggest dataset of in-situ measurements of MERMAID, and hence constitute a major support of the MERIS Ocean Colour validation and calibration (see e.g. [1], [2]).

Barker, K., Mazeran, C., Lerebourg, C., Bouvet, M., Antoine, D., Ondusek, M., Zibordi, G. and Lavender, S. (2008), MERMAID: The MEris MAtchup In-situ Database. Proceedings of the 2nd MERIS/AATSR User Workshop, 22-26 September, ESRIN, Italy.
Mazeran, C., Antoine, D., Lerebourg, C., Bourg, L., Bouvet, M. and Huot, J.-P., (2008) MERIS Vicarious Adjustment Over Waters: First Steps Towards Next Reprocessing . Proceedings of  the 2nd MERIS / (A)ATSR User Workshop, 22-26 September, ESRIN, Italy.

Patty Pratt, from Northrop Grumman Space Technology, NPOESS Cal/Val Team VIIRS Ocean Colour Lead

BOUSSOLE data was acquired in preparation for the VIIRS sensor validation work by Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) NPOESS Cal/Val scientists. NGAS began setting up the database for handling BOUSSOLE data formats, yet came to a quick halt because of program schedules and changes. Due to a delay in the launch of the NPP sensor, many of the job tasks related to the BOUSSOLE data were postponed to the 2010 task list. NGAS intends to utilize the BOUSSOLE in-situ data in conjunction with the Hydrolight-BRDF software to create a water-leaving radiance BRDF for validation purposes of the NPP VIIRS sensor when launched in 2011. The idea is that a BRDF of a specific set of water constituents allows the ocean colour retrieval from any sensor to be at any solar zenith angle. BOUSSOLE is an excellent opportunity to gather the various in-situ data needed to get a working BRDF. When a BRDF has been compiled for a given set of BOUSSOLE data, NGAS will provide LOV with the results, data and related analysis. (NGAS will also seek LOV approval before releasing or publishing any specific results.) NGAS anticipates using your data again in 2010 to establish functionality; however the matchups will not be scheduled until NPP post-launch (2011). NGAS greatly appreciates the opportunity for collaboration and anticipates a symbiotic exchange of useful matchup data.

Christophe Guinet, Elephant seal program:  IPSOS-SEAL and CNES-TOSCA (fluorescence assessment).

We benefit from the BOUSSOLE campaign to conduct the at sea testing and calibration of the CTD-Fluorescence Tags deployed on elephant seals at Kerguelen. The BOUSSOLE platform is the most convenient for our work because the campaigns are regularly conducted,  sea water samples at different depth  allowing the precise assessment of chlorophyll-a concentration  in relation to CTD casts are conducting allowing the  validation and calibration of our tags for the 4  measured parameters:  Pressure-Temperature, Salinity and Fluorescence.
We plan to collaborate with the BOUSSOLE project for the next ten years if the MEMO (Mammifères Echantilloneurs du Milieu Oceanique)-SOERE is set up.

Roman Majchrowski, Ph.D., Institute of Physics, Pomeranian University in Slupsk, Poland

I'd like to inform you that I have been using your data regarding phytoplankton pigments from years 2001-2006 (acquired with HPLC method).
These data come from BOUSSOLE. I got the numeric data from website
I have also been using descriptions of these data from page However, I don't have full access to this page.
I have used data from BOUSSOLE together with data from other experiments to prepare:
- poster R. Majchrowski, M. Ostrowska, B. Woźniak  “Simple mathematical expressions describing vertical algae accessory pigment distributions for remote sensing application” presented at V International Conference Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters  ONW’2009 St. Petersburg (Russia), September 8-11.2009. Description of this poster is published in Proceeding of this conference, pages 214-218
- article R. Majchrowski, M. Ostrowska , 2009, Mathematical description of vertical algal accessory pigment distributions in oceans – a brief presentation , Oceanologia 51(4)/09 in press.
I am also planning further use of data from BOUSSOLE.
Thank you very much for the possibility to use data from your database.

Lars-Eric Heimbuerger, Phd student, Biogeochemistry group at LOV, Villefranche sur mer

We are using the BOUSSOLE pigment data for a publication in progress entitled "Methyl mercury distributions in relation with nano and picophytoplankton in an oceanic water column (Ligurian Sea, North-western Mediterranean)", that we intend to submit to "Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta.
Authors are : Lars-Eric Heimbürger, Daniel Cossa, Jean-Claude Marty, Christophe Migon, Bernard Averty, Aurélie Dufour and Josephine Ras.

Lars Stemman and Gaby Gorsky, researchers at LOV, Villefranche sur mer

Data from BOUSSOLE web site have been downloaded by Dr Gabriel Gorsky and Lars Stemmann (LOV). The data are useful in our pelagic ecosystem analysis of Point B at the entrance of the Bay of Villefranche.
We have been using the data on phytoplankton and hydrology to determine whether changes observed at Point B are similar to changes all along the Nice-BOUSSOLE transect.
At this point the data have not been published because we have not finished our analysis. They will probably be part of a publication in the future. We will keep inform the BOUSSOLE team.
We are also using some ship time to make 2 vertical tows of WP2 net at DYFAMED during several cruises in 2009.
Thanks for the excellent work you are doing.

Emmanuel Boss, Associate Professor, School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, USA

I have not used the data to date but would like very much to use it as part of my funded NOPP project (producing floats for validation/calibration).

François Steinmetz, Hygeos, France

We are using BOUSSOLE data for the validation and analysis of POLDER-3/PARASOL Ocean Colour products; it has been useful to quantify the accuracy of the level 2 products, and to identify problems with the atmospheric correction algorithm. We are also using BOUSSOLE data to validate our POLYMER ocean colour products resulting from a new atmospheric and sun glint correction algorithm applied to MERIS data.

Stéphane Maritorena & Dave Siegel, UCSB-ICESS, USA

We are using the BOUSSOLE data for ocean colour algorithm development and satellite data validation. This is a high quality data set covering eutrophic and mesotrophic conditions. The former are particularly important to us as relatively few quality bio-optical data are currently available in clear waters. The Boussole time-series is also interesting for comparisons with our own long-term in situ field sites BBOP (Bermuda) and Plumes & Blooms (Santa Barbara Channel).

Laurent Coppola, PI of the MOOSE project

The Boussole data were used for comparing chla concentrations from 2005 to 2008 with Dyfamed core parameters measured monthly in the Ligurian Sea near the Boussole site. The chla data were used to indicate the biological activity and then help us to verify the accuracy of the in situ O2 and nutrient concentrations measured in the water column.

Eva Ternon, research scientist at LOV

Les données des campagnes BOUSSOLE  (2003 - 2007) ont été utilisées à deux reprises:
- chlorophylle a: en complément des mesures réalisées par DYFAMED, afin d'établir une comparaison entre données in situ - données satellites fournies par Emmanuel Bosc (détermination de l'évolution du bloom printanier notamment). Les données satellites correspondant bien aux données in situ, ces dernières (ni DYFAMED, ni BOUSSOLE) n'ont pas été utilisées plus loin: aucune publication ni présentation orale.
- densité: en complément des données DYFAMED, ont permis d'élaborer l'évolution de la couche de mélange (2003 - 2007). Ces données ont été utilisées et BOUSSOLE a été évoqué au même titre que DYFAMED dans un article soumis à Biogeoscience ("The impact of Saharan dust on the particulate export in the water column of the North Western Mediterranean Sea") et disponible en ligne sur leur site, dans la partie BGD (date du 17/11).

Sophie Laran, CRC Marineland, Antibes, France

Since October 2008 an Ecological Acoustic Recorder (EAR) was deployed on the Boussole buoy. The EAR is a digital, low power system that records ambient sounds between 5Hz and 32 kHz on a programmable schedule. This project was partially funded by PELAGOS Sanctuary (French Ministry of Environment) and partners. This study is conducted in collaboration with the Group of Scientific Interest for the Marine Mammals in Mediterranean Sea and their Environment (GIS3M),  CRC-Marienald, Univserity of Toulon (Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Information et des Systèmes), M. Castellote (a bioacoustician) , M. Lammers (who developed the equipment) and BOUSSOLE team.
The aim of the project is to study cetaceans’ occurrence in the area with a PAM (Passive Acoustic Monitoring) method.
The EAR is removed from the water, by the divers, each 2 months to download data and change the batteries.
Laran S., Castellote M., Caudal F., Glotin H. 2008. Suivi acoustique des cétacés au Nord du Sanctuaire PELAGOS. Programme de recherche PELAGOS France 2007/2009. Rapport intermédiaire  contrat 08.048.83400. 15 pages
Laran S., Castellote M., Glotin H., Bénard F. et Lamers M.  2009. Suivis des cétacés dans le Nord du Sanctuaire PELAGOS : Comparaison de trois méthodes d’échantillonnage. 11ème Séminaire du Réseau National Echouages, Porticcio, 24-25 novembre 2009  [Oral]

Tristan Harmel, Phd student at LOV

I use the BOUSSOLE data for testing, debugging and validating my atmospheric correction algorithms under development for the PARASOL satellite images. For this task, the use of temporal series of reliable data is of paramount importance. I used specifically the marine reflectance data above and below the water surface. In addition, the comprehensive data web page allows staying in the good use of these in situ data.

Fabien Roquet, MIT

In the framework of the project "Southern Elephant Seal as Oceanographic Sampler" (SEAoS), more than 50 Satellite-Relayed Data Loggers (SRDL) have been attached on the head of elephant seals from the Kerguelen Islands since 2004. These loggers have the ability to sample temperature and salinity profiles along the seal track, and to transmit them in near real-time using the satellite system ARGOS (CLS, Toulouse). These data are of great interest for biologists to study the seal foraging strategies in relation to oceanographic conditions, and also for physicists to obtain oceanographic data in the otherwise under-sampled southern ocean. Large efforts have been constantly made to calibrate the SRDL CTD sensors before annual deployments. One major step of the calibration procedure is to compare SRDL profiles with a ship-based CTD. Thanks to the BOUSSOLE project, we have been able to perform this important calibration step on the R/V Tethys during these last 6 years. Comparisons of SRDLs with the BOUSSOLE CTD data turned out to be essential to correct pressure-induced biases on temperature and salinity measurements, improving significantly accuracy of SRDL measurements.

Italo Masotti, post-Doctoral researcher at LSCE, France

The PHYSAT algorithm has been specially developed to allow retrieval of maps of PFTs distribution in the global ocean from datasets of the ocean colour sensors i.e. CZCS, OCTS, SeaWiFS and MODIS. We use the BOUSSOLE pigment time series to adapt PHYSAT to the Mediterranean Sea. After this study we obtained an improved PHYSAT version to reproduce PFT variability at the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover this work has permitted to implement a general methodology to adapt PHYSAT for regional scale.